Assessment of the Quality of Groundwater for Drinking Purpose in Rajanpur Tehsil, Pakistan
In this study, the quality of groundwater used for drinking purposes at Rajanpur Tehsil Pakistan is investigated. Water contamination causes several health problems to human being and the severity of problems mainly depends upon the level of pollutants present in water. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters of groundwater for twelve locations are analyzed using standard procedures. The obtained results are compared with the standards set by WHO. Most of the chemical parameters are found within the WHO standards except Arsenic, Calcium, and Sulfate at various locations. The Arsenic is found beyond WHO standards at nine locations with an increased percentage of 400% at three locations namely village Mehre Wala, Sehnwal, Near Basti Bhayan, and is also found beyond the permissible limit, i.e., upto 150% at six locations Sikhaniwala, Kot Mithan, Basti Nazru, Basti Asni, Jalal Pur, and Qutab Pul. Only three locations show satisfactory results, namely village shikarpur, village Murghai and Basti Lakha. The percentage of calcium at five locations such as Murghai, Basti Nazru, Basti Asni, Basti Lakha, and Chak Jalal Pur (Pull Pathan) is found to be 44%, 12%, 17.33%, 76%, and 49.33%, which is much higher than the WHO standards. Meanwhile, the Sulphate is also found to be beyond WHO standards at four locations, i.e. 30.8% for Mehrewala, 37.6% for Murghai, 34.8% for Basti Lakha and 34% for Chak Jalal Pur (Pull Pathan). Biological contamination including total coliform and fecal coliform are found to be beyond the limit at Sehanwala, Rangpur, Shikarpur, and Basti Nazru locations. The higher percentage of Arsenic, calcium, and sulfate in water indicate that the groundwater is not suitable for drinking purpose. Sustainable water treatment is highly recommended for drinking water at the identified contaminated location.
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